Tuesday, June 7, 2011

李冰造都江堰 Li Bing Builds the DuJiangYan Irrigation Project

The famous Three Gorges Dam has caused so much controversy that only our future generations can give it an objective evaluation. However, in the same area not far from the great Dam, there is another well-known irrigation and water conservancy project called Du Jiang Yan. It was built around 250 BC (the Warring State Period), and to our amazement, this 2260-year-old construction still benefits the farming of tens of millions of acres in Sichuan Province nowadays. It has withstood the disastrous earthquake in May of 2008, which occurred only about 40km north of Du Jiang Yan.

After the Du Jiang Yan was built, the area call the ChengDu Basin has enjoyed the fame of "the Heaven on the Earth". There has been harvest year after year.


There are many legendary stories about Li Bing, the official who was sent by the court to tame the water. In one story, he turned himself into a dragon and fought with the river deity which appears in the form of dragon too. It is said that Li Bing has a son, who helped him greatly in the process of subduing the rapid river. This young man is believed to be the nephew of  the God in the heaven and owns a magic ax that can cut mountains open. But  there is no record of Li Bing's son in the historical documents anywhere. As a matter of fact, Li Bing had two daughters but no son, which was considered impious in the past. But  people love and respect Li Bing so much that they naturally wish that he has a heroic son. That's where his son comes from.


岷江在长江的上游,从北边的高山往东南方向流。 每年春天,夏天的时候,江水奔腾而下,常常引起洪水。因为岷江的东边有一座高山,挡住了江水,所以山的东边没有水,但是山的西边发大水。这里的老百姓认为洪水是因为岷江里的河神发脾气引起的,所以每年都要在河边祭拜河神,送上猪羊,美女,希望河神高兴了,就没有洪水了。

min3jiang1  zai4  chang2jiang1de   shang4you2, cong2  bei3bian1de  gao1shang1  wang3  dong1nan2  fang1xiang4  liu2.  mei3nian2 chun1tian1,  xia4tian1 deshi2hou,  jiang1shui3  ben1teng2er2xia,  chang2chang2  yin3qi3  hong2shui3.  yin1wei4  min3jiang1 de dong1bian1  you3  yi2zuo4gao1shan1,  dang3zhu4le  jiang1shui3,  suo3yi3  shan1de  dong1bian1  mei2you3  shui3,  dan4shi4  shan1de  xi1bian1 fa1da4shui3.  zhe4li3de  lao3bai3xing4  ren4wei2  hong2shui3  shi4  yin1wei4  min3jiang1  li3 de  he2shen2  fa1pi2qi4   yin3qi3 de,  suo3yi3  mei3nian2  dou1yao4   zai4he2bian1  ji4bai4  he2shen2,  song4shang4  zhu1  yang2 ,  mei3nv3,  xi1wang4  he2shen2  gao1xing4le,   jiu4  mei2you3  hong2shui3le .


李冰是新来的地方官。他看了地形后,决定在河东的山上开一条水道,把水引到东边,这样, 问题就能解决了。但是,工人们不久就遇到了坚硬的岩石,所有的工具都试过了,但都没有用,那时炸药还没有发明。李冰想了很久,想出了一个好办法。他派人在早上和晚上用大火烧岩石,等岩石烧得又红又烫,再用冰水浇在上面,岩石就裂开了,然后把裂开的石块挖出来运走。用这个办法终于在山上开出了一个宽20米,深40米,长80米的山口。因为形状像一个瓶口,叫宝瓶口。


li3bing1  shi4  xin1laide   di4fang1  guan1. ta1  kan4le   di4xin2 hou4,  jue2ding4  zai4 he2dong1de   shan1shang4  kai1  yi4tiao2  shui3dao4, ba3  shui3  yin3dao4  dong1bian1,  zhe4yang4,  wen4ti2  jiu4  jie3jue2le.  dan4shi4,  gong1ren2men   bu4jiu3  jiu4  yu4dao4le  jian1ying4de  yan2shi2,  suo3you3de  gong1ju4  dou1  shi4guo4le,  dan4 dou1  mei2you3yong4,  na4shi2  zha4yao4  hai2  mei2you3  fa1ming2.  li3bing1  xiang3le  hen3jiu3,  xiang3chu1le  yi2e4  hao3 ban4fa3.  ta1 pai4ren2  zai4  zao3shang4 he2  wan3shang4   yong4  da4huo3  shao1  yan2shi2,  deng3  yan2shi2   shao1de   you4hong2you4tang4,  zai4  yong4   bing1shui3   jiao1 zai4  shang4mian4,  yan2shi2  jiu4  lie4kai1le.    ran2hou4  ba3  lie4kai1de  shi2kuai4   wa1chu1lai2   yun4zou3.   yong4  zhe4ge4   ban4fa3   zhong1yu2  zai4  shan1shang4  kai1chu1le  yi2ge4  kuan1   er4shi2 mi3, shen1  si4shi2mi3,  chang2  ba1shi2mi3 de   shan1kou3.  yin1wei4  xin2zhuang4  xiang4  yi2ge4  ping2kou3,  jiao4  bao3ping2kou3.

宝瓶口造完以后,为了让江水比较容易流进新开的山口,李冰又带领大家在西边不远的岷江上建造了一个长长地人造小岛,把江水分成内江,外江两个部分。没有洪水的时候,内江往东通过宝瓶口流到成都平原。有洪水的时候,洪水可以从外江流走。造这个小岛也不容易,因为石块一落进江里就被江水冲走。聪明的李冰看到山上到处是竹子,又想到了好办法。他叫人做了很多巨大的竹筐,把石块装在竹筐里面,然后扔进江里,就不会被水冲走了。

bao3ping2kou3 zao4wan2  yi3hou4,  wei4le  rang4  jiang1shui3  bi3jiao4  rong2yi4 liu2jin4  xin1kai1de  shan1kou3,  li3bing1  you4 dai4ling3  da4jia1   zai4 xi1bian1  bu4yuan3de   min3jiang1shang4   jian4zao4le  yi2ge4  chang2chang2de   ren2zao4  xiao3dao3,  ba3  jiang1shui3  fen2cheng2  nei4jiang1,  wai4jiang1  liang3ge4  bu4fen.  mei2you3  hong2shui3de  shi2hou4,  nei4jiang1  nei4jiang1  wang3dong1  tong1guo4   bao3ping2kou3  liu2dao4   cheng2du1  ping2yuan2.  you3 hong2shui3  de shi2hou, hong2shui3  ke3yi3  cong2  wai4jiang1  liu2zou3. zao4  zhe4ge4  dao3  ye3  bu4rong2yi4,  yin1wei4   shi2kuai4  yi2 luo4jin4  jiang1li3  jiu4  bei4  jiang1shui3  chong1zou3.  cong1ming2de  li3bing1  kan4dao4  shan1shang4  dao4chu4  shi4  zhu2zi,  you4  xiang3dao4le  hao3ban4fa3.  ta1  jiao4ren2   zuo4le   hen3duo1   ju4da4de  zhu2kuang1,  ba3  shi2kuai4  zhuang1zai4  zhu2kuang1  li3mian4,  ran2hou4   reng1jin4  jiang1li3,  jiu4  bu2hui4   bei4shui3  chong1zou3le.


就这样,李冰成功地制服了江水。老百姓感谢李冰,为他在山上造了庙,每年春天都来祭拜他。

jiu4zhe4yang4,  li3bing1  cheng2gong1de   zhi4fu2le  jiang1shui3. lao3bai3xing4  gan3xie4  li3bing1,  wei4ta1  zai4  shan1shang4   zao4le  miao4,  mei3nian2  chun1tian1  dou1  lai2  ji4bai4  ta1.


Translation:
Min River is at the upstream of the Long River, and it flows from the high mountains in the north to the southeast direction. Every  spring and summer,  when the rapid river water dashed down, it often caused flooding. Because there was a high mountain on the east side of  Min River, blocking the water (from flowing to the east), so there was no water on the east side of the mountain, but flooding on the west side of the mountain. The common people here thought that the flooding resulted from the river god of Min River, who lost his temper. Therefore, they would worship the river god at the river side every year with pigs, sheep and pretty girls. They hoped that there would be no flooding when the river god was cheered up.
The famous Three Gorges Dam has caused so much controversy that only our future generations can give it an objective evaluation. However, in the same area not far from the great Dam, there is another well-known irrigation and water conservancy project called Du Jiang Yan. It was built around 250 BC (the Warring State Period), and to our amazement, this 2260-year-old construction still benefits the farming of tens of millions of acres in Sichuan Province nowadays. It has withstood the disastrous earthquake in May of 2008, which occurred only about 40km north of Du Jiang Yan.
After the Du Jiang Yan was built, the area call the ChengDu Basin has enjoyed the fame of "the Heaven on the Earth". There has been harvest year after year.



There are many legendary stories about Li Bing, the official who was sent by the court to tame the water. In one story, he turned himself into a dragon and fought with the river deity which appears in the form of dragon too. It is said that Li Bing has a son, who helped him greatly in the process of subduing the rapid river. This young man is believed to be the nephew of  the God in the heaven and owns a magic ax that can cut mountains open. But  there is no record of Li Bing's son in the historical documents anywhere. As a matter of fact, Li Bing had two daughters but no son, which was considered impious in the past. But  people love and respect Li Bing so much that they naturally wish that he has a heroic son. That's where his son comes from.


岷江在长江的上游,从北边的高山往东南方向流。 每年春天,夏天的时候,江水奔腾而下,常常引起洪水。因为岷江的东边有一座高山,挡住了江水,所以山的东边没有水,但是山的西边发大水。这里的老百姓认为洪水是因为岷江里的河神发脾气引起的,所以每年都要在河边祭拜河神,送上猪羊,美女,希望河神高兴了,就没有洪水了。

min3jiang1  zai4  chang2jiang1de   shang4you2, cong2  bei3bian1de  gao1shang1  wang3  dong1nan2  fang1xiang4  liu2.  mei3nian2 chun1tian1,  xia4tian1 deshi2hou,  jiang1shui3  ben1teng2er2xia,  chang2chang2  yin3qi3  hong2shui3.  yin1wei4  min3jiang1 de dong1bian1  you3  yi2zuo4gao1shan1,  dang3zhu4le  jiang1shui3,  suo3yi3  shan1de  dong1bian1  mei2you3  shui3,  dan4shi4  shan1de  xi1bian1 fa1da4shui3.  zhe4li3de  lao3bai3xing4  ren4wei2  hong2shui3  shi4  yin1wei4  min3jiang1  li3 de  he2shen2  fa1pi2qi4   yin3qi3 de,  suo3yi3  mei3nian2  dou1yao4   zai4he2bian1  ji4bai4  he2shen2,  song4shang4  zhu1  yang2 ,  mei3nv3,  xi1wang4  he2shen2  gao1xing4le,   jiu4  mei2you3  hong2shui3le .


李冰是新来的地方官。他看了地形后,决定在河东的山上开一条水道,把水引到东边,这样, 问题就能解决了。但是,工人们不久就遇到了坚硬的岩石,所有的工具都试过了,但都没有用,那时炸药还没有发明。李冰想了很久,想出了一个好办法。他派人在早上和晚上用大火烧岩石,等岩石烧得又红又烫,再用冰水浇在上面,岩石就裂开了,然后把裂开的石块挖出来运走。用这个办法终于在山上开出了一个宽20米,高40米,长80米的山口。因为形状像一个瓶口,叫宝瓶口。

li3bing1  shi4  xin1laide   di4fang1  guan1. ta1  kan4le   di4xin2 hou4,  jue2ding4  zai4 he2dong1de   shan1shang4  kai1  yi4tiao2  shui3dao4, ba3  shui3  yin3dao4  dong1bian1,  zhe4yang4,  wen4ti2  jiu4  jie3jue2le.  dan4shi4,  gong1ren2men   bu4jiu3  jiu4  yu4dao4le  jian1ying4de  yan2shi2,  suo3you3de  gong1ju4  dou1  shi4guo4le,  dan4 dou1  mei2you3yong4,  na4shi2  zha4yao4  hai2  mei2you3  fa1ming2.  li3bing1  xiang3le  hen3jiu3,  xiang3chu1le  yi2e4  hao3 ban4fa3.  ta1 pai4ren2  zai4  zao3shang4 he2  wan3shang4   yong4  da4huo3  shao1  yan2shi2,  deng3  yan2shi2   shao1de   you4hong2you4tang4,  zai4  yong4   bing1shui3   jiao1 zai4  shang4mian4,  yan2shi2  jiu4  lie4kai1le.    ran2hou4  ba3  lie4kai1de  shi2kuai4   wa1chu1lai2   yun4zou3.   yong4  zhe4ge4   ban4fa3   zhong1yu2  zai4  shan1shang4  kai1chu1le  yi2ge4  kuan1   er4shi2 mi3, gao1  si4shi2mi3,  chang2  ba1shi2mi3 de   shan1kou3.  yin1wei4  xin2zhuang4  xiang4  yi2ge4  ping2kou3,  jiao4  bao3ping2kou3.

宝瓶口造完以后,为了让江水比较容易流进新开的山口,李冰又带领大家在西边不远的岷江上建造了一个长长地人造小岛,把江水分成内江,外江两个部分。没有洪水的时候,内江的水往东通过宝瓶口流到成都平原。有洪水的时候,洪水可以从外江流走。造这个小岛也不容易,因为石块一落进江里就被江水冲走。聪明的李冰看到山上到处是竹子,又想到了好办法。他叫人做了很多巨大的竹筐,把石块装在竹筐里面,然后扔进江里,就不会被水冲走了。


bao3ping2kou3 zao4wan2  yi3hou4,  wei4le  rang4  jiang1shui3  bi3jiao4  rong2yi4 liu2jin4  xin1kai1de  shan1kou3,  li3bing1  you4 dai4ling3  da4jia1   zai4 xi1bian1  bu4yuan3de   min3jiang1shang4   jian4zao4le  yi2ge4  chang2chang2de   ren2zao4  xiao3dao3,  ba3  jiang1shui3  fen2cheng2  nei4jiang1,  wai4jiang1  liang3ge4  bu4fen.  mei2you3  hong2shui3de  shi2hou4,  nei4jiang1  nei4jiang1 deshui3  wang3dong1  tong1guo4   bao3ping2kou3  liu2dao4   cheng2du1  ping2yuan2.  you3 hong2shui3  de shi2hou, hong2shui3  ke3yi3  cong2  wai4jiang1  liu2zou3. zao4  zhe4ge4  dao3  ye3  bu4rong2yi4,  yin1wei4   shi2kuai4  yi2 luo4jin4  jiang1li3  jiu4  bei4  jiang1shui3  chong1zou3.  cong1ming2de  li3bing1  kan4dao4  shan1shang4  dao4chu4  shi4  zhu2zi,  you4  xiang3dao4le  hao3ban4fa3.  ta1  jiao4ren2   zuo4le   hen3duo1   ju4da4de  zhu2kuang1,  ba3  shi2kuai4  zhuang1zai4  zhu2kuang1  li3mian4,  ran2hou4   reng1jin4  jiang1li3,  jiu4  bu2hui4   bei4shui3  chong1zou3le.


就这样,李冰成功地制服了江水。老百姓感谢李冰,为他在山上造了庙,每年春天都来祭拜他。

jiu4zhe4yang4,  li3bing1  cheng2gong1de   zhi4fu2le  jiang1shui3. lao3bai3xing4  gan3xie4  li3bing1,  wei4ta1  zai4  shan1shang4   zao4le  miao4,  mei3nian2  chun1tian1  dou1  lai2  ji4bai4  ta1.


Translation:
Min River is at the upstream of the Long River, and it flows from the high mountains in the north to the southeast direction. Every  spring and summer,  when the rapid river water dashed down, it often caused flooding. Because there was a high mountain on the east side of  Min River, blocking the water (from flowing to the east), so there was no water on the east side of the mountain, but flooding on the west side of the mountain. The common people here thought that the flooding resulted from the river god of Min River, who lost his temper. Therefore, they would worship the river god at the river side every year with pigs, sheep and pretty girls. They hoped that there would be no flooding when the river god was cheered up.
Li Bing was the new local official. After he checked the terrain, he decided to cut out a canal on the mountain by the east side of the river so that the water could be diverted to the east. The problem could be solved this way.  However, soon enough,  the workers ran into the hard rock, which would not yield to any tools tried. At that time, dynamite hadn't been invented yet. Li Bing thought it over  for a long time, and came up with a good idea. He had the rocks roasted by big fire in the early mornings and evenings. When the rocks were roasted red and scorching, icy water was poured onto them.  The rocks would crack open. Then the split-up rocks were dug out and carried away. In this way, a pass (20 meters wide, 40 meters deep, 80 meters long) was finally cut out on the mountain. It was named BaoPingKou (lit. precious bottle mouth) due to its shape of a bottle mouth.

After BaoPingKou was completed, Li Bing also led the people to build a small long man-made island on the Min River to the west of and not far away from BaoPingKou, in order to divert the water more easily into the new mountain pass. The island splits the river water into two parts, the inner river and the outer river.  When there is no flooding, the water can flow from the inner river past BaoPingKou to the ChengDu Plain.  When there is flooding, the water can be diverted away by the outer river. It was again not easy to build this small island because the rocks would be washed away as soon as it was dropped into the water. The smart Li Bing again hit on a good idea when he saw the bamboos grew everywhere  on the mountain. He sent people to make many giant bamboo baskets, which were then loaded with rocks and stones and then thrown into the river. They would not be washed away by water.
Li Bing subdued the river this way successfully. The common people are grateful to him. So they built temples for Li Bing on the mountains, and come to worship him every summer.

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